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However, the way this is institutionalized is quite different in moderate secular states such as Britain, Germany, and Denmark. There is also a more guesthouses rambuttri radical secularism in European political culture, which is self-consciously exemplified in French lacit.

This york guesthouses form of secularism is less about accommodating religion than about maintaining a republican national space in which religion is not present while ensuring personal religious freedom outside the civic space.

This civic space encompasses not just political and judicial institutions but also schools and, as far as some of its advocates phuket guesthouses are concerned, extends also to public culture, streets, parks, and shops. How does this relate to the accommodation of Muslims? The above suggests that Western Europe may respond to Muslim political assertiveness in two opposing ways, based on its response to two controversies that erupted in 1989: theRushdie affair in the United Kingdom and the headscarf affair in France.

In response to the former, realizing that Muslims were excluded from existing racial discrimination and incitement to racial hatred laws, the U.K.

government started collecting data to map and respond to socio-economic inequality between religious groups.

In due course, supplementary laws were created to bring religious equality in line with racial equality (the laws on both of these being the strongest in Europe and most likely to be enforced), and policies began to target Muslim disadvantage cambridge guesthouses no less than racial disadvantage.

government sought interlocutors and partners amongst nationally and locally organized Muslims in order to identify and address legitimate grievances and, more generally, began to fermanagh guesthouses develop multi- and interfaith governance in order guesthouses enniskillen to express respect for religious communities and the guesthouses cambridge macau guesthouses cambridge guesthouses importance of cohesion amongst them as well as in society generally.

If Western European nations follow this example, they might allow Muslims to represent themselves in civil society, the media, and government at all levels, and encourage dialogue between religious groups and society.

They might guesthouses in bangkok further treat religious dog friendly guesthouses discrimination and incitement to religious hatred seriously, and enforce the law through an agency (perhaps along the cambridge guesthouses lines of the U.K.

Moreover, they might fund Muslim schools, bring Muslims into governance, toronto guesthouses and promote inter-faith relations at all levels, including in state ceremonies such as Remembrance Day.

Measures like this have been enacted in various European countries to differing degrees. Some, however, hav imitated the French response to the 1989 headscarf affair instead.

Based on this example, some Western European nations have banned ostentatious religious insignia in schools and prohibited the wearing of face veils by adults cambridge guesthouses in all public places. They have created a top-down national Muslim council as an interlocutor to the government, but this body only addresses a narrow religious agenda rather than political concerns or, alternatively, addresses a wide agenda without actuating policy (as in the case of the Islam Conference in Germany). Finally, too many tobago guesthouses European governments discourage Muslim self-representation in politics and civil society and prefer to initiate debates about Islams relationship to national identity in which Muslims are the objects of discussion rather than participants to it.

This was the case for the French identity debate initiated by President Nicolas Sarkozy a few years ago.

It is clear that Western Europe will not be able to integrate its growing gatwick guesthouses population of Muslims into its national polities without rethinking political secularism.

This will be much easier where moderate secularism andmulticulturalism prevail, as opposed to guesthouses vang vieng a more radical form of secularism.